FACTOID: Bitcoin futures at CME Group provide the following expiries: Nearest two (2) Decembers and nearest six (6) consecutive months. This allows traders to enjoy flexibility in matching their price expectations to a variety of time horizons.

The vast majority of futures trades made by speculators are offset before final expiration. Some traders might allow their positions to expire; and in the case of bitcoin futures, would expire to cash settlement according to the Bitcoin Reference Rate (BRR).  

However, a small group of investors, mainly institutions such as pension funds, endowments and money managers, might wish to extend their positions beyond the contract expiration. The strategy that allows them to extend a futures contract from one expiration to the next is referred to as rolling the futures contract (or rolling forward). The transaction that effects this strategy is called a calendar spread. 

Calendar Spreads

A calendar spread allows a trader to exit the expiring contract and into a deferred contract in a single trade. By doing a calendar spread, a trader’s bitcoin futures position can be extended by one month or more depending on which deferred contract he rolls into. Below is an illustration showing how investors can roll their Bitcoin futures forward using calendar spreads.

In Figure 1 below, you can see all the current Bitcoin futures contract expiration months. 

Figure 1-Bitcoin futures price quotes: January 4, 2018

BTCH8 –BTCM8 is the Mar 18/Jun 18 spread (buying this spread would be buying the June and selling the March contract).

The price of the spread trade is the price of the deferred expiration minus the price of the nearby expiration. After the spread trade is done, the price of the two contracts will be determined using the following convention:

Priced to the nearby contract’s assigned price plus the spread price.

Example:

Bought BTCF8—BTCH8 @ +130

Assuming BTCF8 prior settle = 14,975

Price of the two legs: sold BTCF8 @14,975, bought BTCH8 @ 14,975 + (130) = 15,105

The spread price can also be negative, meaning that the March contract has a lower price than the January contract in this example.

Other Considerations

As of early January 2018, each deferred futures contract in Bitcoin futures trades at successively higher prices (known as Contango). Hence the spreads are positive as of now. But this could change at any time. In fact, they could go negative. As you may be aware, spot bitcoin pays no dividends or interest. Moreover, while spot bitcoin is, for all intents and purposes, nearly impossible to sell short, it is relatively easy to sell short Bitcoin futures contracts. Given that no wallet risk exists with futures (you do not need a wallet when you trade futures but do when you buy bitcoin on the spot market). These factors will influence how futures in deferred calendar months will be priced. In a higher interest rate environment, it’s likely the spread will become more positive. In a severe bear market environment, the spreads could go negative and deferred contracts could become much cheaper than the nearby.

Given that Bitcoin futures are new a carry relatively high volatility, it behooves investors large and small to be aware of these nuances.

Test your knowledge

ACCREDITED COURSE

Did you know that CME Institute classes can fulfill CFA and GARP continuing education requirements? Every CME Institute course can be self-reported in your CFA online CE tracker and select classes can be used for GARP credits. See which of our classes qualify for GARP credits here.

What did you think of this course?

To help us improve our education materials, please provide your feedback.

Extend your learning

Put your knowledge into practice with the Trading Simulator

Get hands on experience with the latest Trading Challenge

CME Group is the world’s leading derivatives marketplace. The company is comprised of four Designated Contract Markets (DCMs). 
Further information on each exchange's rules and product listings can be found by clicking on the links to CME, CBOT, NYMEX and COMEX.

© 2022 CME Group Inc. All rights reserved.