|Month over Month||0.2%||0.2%||0.2%|
|Year over Year||-0.2%||-0.2%||-0.2%|
The final estimate of consumer prices in March showed no revisions to the flash report. A 0.2 percent monthly rise in the CPI nudged the annual inflation rate a tick firmer to minus 0.2 percent, its second consecutive month in negative territory.
By contrast, the HICP was revised slightly firmer to show a 2.1 percent jump versus February and a 0.2 percent decline on the year, up from a 0.4 percent drop last time.
As previously indicated the main downward pressure on overall prices came from weakness in the energy market where the annual inflation rate dropped from minus 8.5 percent to minus 11.2 percent. However, inflation in leisure and culture picked up from 1.0 percent to 1.2 percent and deflation in communications eased from 0.6 percent to 0.1 percent. As a result, core inflation (ex-energy and unprocessed food) crept a tick higher to 0.6 percent, also matching its provisional flash estimate.
The consumer price index (CPI) is a measure of the average price level of a fixed basket of goods and services purchased by consumers. Monthly and annual changes in the CPI provide the most closely watched measures of the inflation rate. A flash estimate is available normally in the last week of the reference month or the first week of the following month.
The consumer price index is the most widely followed indicator of inflation. An investor who understands how inflation influences the markets will benefit over those investors that do not understand the impact. In countries such as the Italy where monetary policy decisions rest on the central bank's inflation target, the rate of inflation directly affects all interest rates charged to business and the consumer. As a member of the European Monetary Union, Italy's interest rates are set by the European Central Bank.
Italy like other EMU countries has both a national CPI and a harmonized index of consumer prices (HICP). Components and weights within the national CPI vary from other countries, reflecting national idiosyncrasies. The core CPI, which excludes fresh food, is usually the preferred indicator of short-term inflation pressures.
Inflation is an increase in the overall prices of goods and services. The relationship between inflation and interest rates is the key to understanding how indicators such as the CPI influence the markets - and your investments. As the rate of inflation changes and as expectations on inflation change, the markets adjust interest rates. The effect ripples across stocks, bonds, commodities, and your portfolio, often in a dramatic fashion.
By tracking inflation, whether high or low, rising or falling, investors can anticipate how different types of investments will perform. Over the long run, the bond market will rally (fall) when increases in the CPI are small (large). The equity market rallies with the bond market because low inflation promises low interest rates and is good for profits.