US: International Trade

Tue Apr 05 07:30:00 CDT 2016

Consensus Consensus Range Actual Previous Revised
Trade Balance Level $-46.2B $-46.8B to $-43.0B $-47.1B $-45.7B $-45.9B

The nation's February trade deficit came in at a wider-than-expected $47.1 billion in a report, however, that mostly points to rising cross-border demand.

Domestic demand was up as imports rose 1.3 percent to $225.1 billion in the month led by a surge for consumer goods and also a gain in services. And foreign demand was up as exports rose 1.0 percent to $178.1 billion and include gains for the nation's consumer goods, vehicles and agricultural products. But there are signs of weakness on the export side including for capital goods, where softness has been pointing to weak global business investment, and also a rare decline, though only a marginal one, for the nation's services.

The net gap would have been larger if not for a sharp price decline in oil-related products. The price of imported crude averaged $27.48 per barrel which is the lowest since 2003 and down nearly $5 from January. This effect is likely to reverse in the next report given oil's price strength during March.

By country, the gap with China narrowed by nearly $1 billion in the month to $28.1 billion while the gap with Canada, reflecting low oil prices in the month, narrowed by $1.5 billion to an even $1.0 billion. Gaps with the EU and Mexico both widened, to $9.9 billion and $5.0 billion respectively.

The spots of weakness on the export-side are a concern but this report is mostly positive even though, given the wider-than-expected headline, it will scale back first-quarter GDP estimates.

Market Consensus Before Announcement
The nation's trade deficit is expected to widen slightly in February, to a consensus $46.2 billion vs January's $45.7 billion, but cross-border trade, based on the advance report for goods, picked up noticeably in a welcome sign for global demand. Exports of goods rose 2.0 percent in the advance data for February with imports up 1.6 percent. This year's decline in the dollar should begin to give exports some traction.

International trade is composed of merchandise (tangible goods) and services. It is available nationally by export, import and trade balance. Merchandise trade is available by export, import and trade balance for six principal end-use commodity categories and for more than one hundred principal Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) system commodity groupings. Data are also available for 36 countries and geographic regions. Detailed information is reported on oil and motor vehicle imports. Services trade is available by export, import and trade balance for seven principal end-use categories.

Changes in the level of imports and exports, along with the difference between the two (the trade balance) are a valuable gauge of economic trends here and abroad. While these trade figures can directly impact all financial markets, they primarily affect the value of the dollar in the foreign exchange market.

Imports indicate demand for foreign goods and services here in the U.S. Exports show the demand for U.S. goods in countries overseas. The dollar can be particularly sensitive to changes in the chronic trade deficit run by the United States, since this trade imbalance creates greater demand for foreign currencies. The bond market is also sensitive to the risk of importing inflation. This report gives a breakdown of U.S. trade with major countries as well, so it can be instructive for investors who are interested in diversifying globally. For example, a trend of accelerating exports to a particular country might signal economic strength and investment opportunities in that country.

The international trade balance on goods and services is the major indicator for foreign trade. While the trade balance (deficit) is small relative to the size of the economy (although it has increased over the years), changes in the trade balance can be quite substantial relative to changes in economic output from one quarter to the next. Measured separately, inflation-adjusted imports and exports are important components of aggregate economic activity, representing approximately 17 and 12 percent of real GDP, respectively.

Market reaction to this report is complex. Typically, the smaller the trade deficit, the more bullish for the dollar. Also, stronger exports are bullish for corporate earnings and the stock market.

Both the level and changes in the level of international trade indicate relevant information about the trends in foreign trade. Like most economic indicators, the trade balance is subject to substantial monthly variability, especially when oil prices change. It is more appropriate to follow either three-month or 12-month moving averages of the monthly levels.

It is also useful to examine the trend growth rates for exports and imports separately because they can deviate significantly. Trends in export activity reflect both the competitive position of American industry and the strength of domestic and foreign economic activity. U.S. exports will grow when: 1) U.S. product prices are lower than foreign product prices; 2) the value of the dollar is relatively weaker than that of foreign currencies; 3) foreign economies are growing rapidly.

Imports will increase when: 1) foreign product prices are lower than prices of domestically-produced goods; 2) the value of the dollar is stronger than that of other currencies; 3) domestic demand for goods and services is robust.

The international trade report does show bilateral trade balances with our major trading partners. Since the value of the dollar versus various foreign currencies does not always move in tandem, we can see a narrower or wider trade deficit with different countries. In the 1980s and 1990s, the U.S. trade deficit with Japan often caused political problems. In the 2000s, the trade deficit with Japan is now smaller, but the U.S. trade deficit with China is growing rapidly. While American consumers benefit from weak imports, American workers often lose their jobs as these goods are no longer produced in the United States. Ideally, the United States would be exporting (high end) goods that other countries don't produce.