Fri Sep 11 07:30:00 CDT 2015

Consensus Consensus Range Actual Previous
PPI-FD - M/M change -0.2% -0.6% to 0.1% 0.0% 0.2%
PPI-FD less food & energy - M/M change 0.1% 0.0% to 0.2% 0.3% 0.3%
PPI-FD less food, energy & trade services - M/M change 0.1% 0.0% to 0.2% 0.1% 0.2%
PPI-FD - Y/Y change -0.8% -0.8%
PPI-FD less food & energy - Y/Y change 0.9% 0.6%
PPI-FD less food, energy & trade services - Y/Y change 0.7% 0.9%

There's unexpected pressure in the producer price report but not very much. PPI-FD came in unchanged in August vs expectations for a 0.2 percent decline while less food & energy came in at plus 0.3 percent which is just outside the high estimate. The less food, energy & trade services reading edged 0.1 percent higher as expected. Trade services posted a large 0.9 percent gain tied to a jump in apparel and footwear. Fruits shot higher in the month with residential natural gas also up.

Of note, the less food & energy reading has now posted three straight outsized gains of 0.3 percent. Year-on-year, the headline reading is minus 0.8 percent while the two core readings show some pressure, at plus 0.9 percent and plus 0.7 percent respectively. Though still low, the direction of this report does support the hawks, at least to a degree, at next week's FOMC. Next inflation report will be the consumer price index on Wednesday, which is also the first day of the FOMC's two-day meeting.

Market Consensus Before Announcement
Producer prices - final demand is expected to post a 0.2 percent decline in August vs a July rise of 0.2 percent. Negative pull is also expected for the ex-food ex-energy reading, to plus 0.1 percent from plus 0.3 percent, and the ex-food ex-energy ex-services reading, to plus 0.1 percent from plus 0.2 percent. Energy prices fell 0.6 percent in the July report and are certain to post another decline in the August report. Fed policy makers had been waiting for the prior effects of the oil collapse to fade and for price trends to improve, but that talk is long dead.

The Producer Price Index (PPI) of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is a family of indexes that measure the average change over time in the prices received by domestic producers of goods and services. PPIs measure price change from the perspective of the seller. Effective with the January 2014 PPI data release in February 2014, BLS transitioned from the Stage of Processing (SOP) to the Final Demand-Intermediate Demand (FD-ID) aggregation system. The headline PPI (for Final Demand) measures price changes for goods, services, and construction sold to final demand: personal consumption, capital investment, government purchases, and exports.

The PPI measures prices at the producer level before they are passed along to final consumers. A portion of the inflation at the producer level gets passed through to the consumer price index (CPI). By tracking price pressures in the pipeline, investors can anticipate inflationary consequences in coming months.

While the CPI is the price index with the most impact in setting interest rates, the PPI provides significant information earlier in the production process. As a starting point, interest rates have an "inflation premium" and components for risk factors. A lender will want the money paid back from a loan to at least have the same purchasing power as when loaned. The interest rate at a minimum equals the inflation rate to maintain purchasing power and this generally is based on the CPI. Changes in inflation lead to changes in interest rates and, in turn, in equity prices.

The PPI comes in two key main versions: final demand (FD) and intermediate demand (ID). The final demand portion is composed of six main price indexes: final demand goods; final demand trade services; final demand transportation and warehousing services; final demand services less trade, transportation, and warehousing; final demand construction; and overall final demand.

The intermediate demand portion of the FD-ID system tracks price changes for goods, services, and construction products sold to businesses as inputs to production, excluding capital investment. There are two parallel treatments of intermediate demand, each constructed from the identical set of commodity price indexes. The first treatment organizes commodities according to commodity type, and the second organizes commodities using a stage-based, production flow model.

The PPI is considered a precursor of both consumer price inflation and profits. If the prices paid to producers increase, businesses are faced with either charging higher prices or taking a cut in profits. The ability to pass along price increases depends on the strength and competitiveness of the marketplace.

Under the prior PPI system, the producer price index was substantially more volatile than the consumer price index because the CPI included services while the PPI did not. Volatility has been reduced substantially in the PPI-FD due to the inclusion of services but the PPI still is more volatile than the CPI. Wages are a bigger share of the costs at the retail level than at the producer level and this plays a role in the CPI's lower volatility. Also, the PPI does not include owners' equivalent renta large and slow moving component in the CPI. Food and energy prices are major sources of volatility in the PPI, hence, the greater focus on the "core PPI" which excludes these two components.

The bond market rallies when the PPI decreases or posts only small increases, but bond prices fall when the PPI posts larger-than-expected gains. The equity market rallies with the bond market because low inflation promises low interest rates and is good for profits.